Graphic novels and comics

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Graphic novels are novel-length publications in a "comic book" format. Despite the word "novel", the term is used by the Library of Congress and the publishing industry to describe both fiction or nonfiction materials in this format.

One record vs. separate records

The rules in this section are a draft until reviewed by SCRAP and CAMM.
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Follow the series vs. set guidelines for when to use a single multivolume record and when to use separate records for each volume.

Variable fields

ISBN (020)
In the CCS database, add ISBNs for all volumes to all multivolume or serial graphic novel records. Also add ISBNs for unpublished future volumes if you can easily discover them, in order to help prevent unnecessary monograph records for series cataloged on a multivolume or serial record.
Edition (250)
The phrase "Direct edition" on graphic novels published by Marvel is not an edition statement; it just means the book was sold through comic book shops and book vendors. DC uses the phrase "Direct sales" to indicate the same thing. "Direct edition" should either be in a quoted note or should not be mentioned at all.
Publication history note (500)
State where the material in a collection was originally published
500  "Originally published in magazine form as Ultimate Spider-man #123-128"--Page 2 of cover.


The term "manga" originally meant Japanese material published in the comic-book format, but it has since been used for Japanese "manga" books, American "original English language manga" books, American "Cine-manga" books for American cartoons, Chinese "manhua" books, and Korean "manwha" books.

For Japanese manga, add the local genre heading 655 _7 Manga.‡2local.

Call numbers

If a multivolume record is used, use the call number volume field to enter volume numbers. Follow the existing pattern if there are other items already on the same record. Also see Multivolume call numbers.

If a separate record is used for each volume, do not use the call number volume field. Volume numbers may be entered in the suffix or other fields, if desired.